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1.- The process in which individuals from different cultural backgrounds within a society gradually lose their cultural distinctiveness and the society tends to become more culturally homogeneous is known as:
2.- A high school bilingual teacher plans to incorporate stories from various cultures in the world literature course curriculum. The aim is to allow students to explore cultural diversity, thus improving their understanding and appreciation of different cultures. Which of the following is the best rationale for this approach?
3.- A beginning bilingual teacher should be aware of the historical background of bilingual education in the United States. Which of the following is an important aspect of this background?
4.- A bilingual education teacher must understand procedures for assessing and placing English-language learners. Which committee is responsible for this process?
5.- A bilingual teacher decides to invite guest speakers from diverse cultural backgrounds to share their personal stories and professional experiences with the class. What is the primary benefit of this activity for English-language learners (ELLs)?
6.- A bilingual teacher incorporates culturally relevant literature from the students’ home countries into the curriculum. How does this practice contribute to an effective learning environment for English-language learners (ELLs)?
7.- A bilingual teacher is assigned to a school that follows a two-way immersion program model for bilingual education. To effectively implement the curriculum, the teacher should primarily focus on:
8.- A bilingual teacher is working in a school that implements a transitional bilingual education program model. In this context, the teacher should prioritize:
9.- A bilingual teacher wants to create a more inclusive and multicultural learning environment for their students. Which of the following activities would be most effective in achieving this goal?
10.- A bilingual teacher notices that some students in the class are struggling to adapt to the school environment due to differences in cultural norms between their home and school. What strategy can the teacher use to help bridge the home and school cultural environments for these students?
11.- A bilingual teacher is planning a lesson on regional dialects and accents within the students’ native language. What is the primary benefit of incorporating this topic into the curriculum?
12.- In which of the following U.S. Supreme Court cases was it determined that the lack of supplemental English instruction in public schools for students with limited English proficiency violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
13.- In a dual-language program, how does maintaining instruction in English-language learners’ (ELLs) first language (L1) while introducing a second language (L2) contribute to their academic success?
14.- A bilingual teacher notices that one of their students is struggling with reading and writing in English but has strong listening and speaking skills. Based on this information, at which English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) level is the student likely to be placed in the domains of reading and writing?
15.- Mr. Rodriguez’s lesson plans for his fifth-grade classroom incorporate support in the students’ native language (L1) for mathematics and science concepts, including vocabulary and initial engagement with new material. He seeks to ensure that his English Language Learners (ELLs) comprehend the subjects they’ll be studying the following week, particularly because the majority of instruction is in English (L2). While he emphasizes L2 language development throughout the day, he utilizes L1 to make sure ELLs don’t lag in subject matter knowledge as they become more proficient in L2. Based on his planning, Mr. Rodriguez is most likely implementing which of the following special language programs?
16.- Mr. Sanchez, a high school bilingual teacher, regularly includes articles and podcasts in the curriculum that focus on various international artists and authors who express their creativity in more than one language. A major advantage of using these materials for English Language Learners (ELLs) is that they enable ELLs to:
17.- Which of the following federal acts explicitly emphasized the need for schools to address the unique needs of English Language Learners (ELLs) and helped to establish the foundation for bilingual education programs?
18.- Which Supreme Court case established that school districts are required to take affirmative steps to rectify language deficiencies of their students, resulting in the creation of various programs, including bilingual and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs?
19.- Which of the following instructional strategies has research identified as being particularly effective for English Language Learners (ELLs) when learning new vocabulary?
20.- Ms. Gonzales, a fourth-grade bilingual teacher, reads aloud the rules for a new math game to her students. After reading the rules, she notices that some of the students are not sure how to start playing the game. Ms. Gonzales then decides to repeat the rules one by one, simplifying the language used in the written instructions so it is easier for the students to understand. Which of the following techniques is Ms. Gonzales best demonstrating by adapting the lesson?
21.- Which of the following activities would demand the highest utilization of basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS)?
22.- In comparison to an adult learner, a middle school student acquiring a second language is more likely to:
23.- In a fourth-grade bilingual classroom, Mr. Torres hands out a short text in English (L2). A student identifies that the word ‘frustration’ in the text has a similar sound to the Spanish word ‘frustración’. Before the whole class discussion on the text, Mr. Torres organizes the students into small groups and instructs them to discover and deliberate over the meanings of words that have similar sounds in English (L2) and Spanish (L1). Afterward, he compiles a list of all the findings from each group. This activity is a testament to Mr. Torres’ understanding that:
24.- While teaching a science lesson, Mrs. Rosales asks her class, which includes English-language learners (ELLs), to illustrate pictures that symbolize the meaning of new vocabulary words they come across during the lesson. She then prompts them to explain the meaning of their drawings in pairs or small groups. Which of the following assertions best represents Mrs. Rosales’ understanding of research-based second-language instruction for ELLs?
25.- A fundamental premise behind the implementation and instruction of a two-way immersion program is that the acquisition of a first language occurs through:
26.- In a reading lesson, Juan, a third-grade English-language learner whose first language is Spanish, struggles with the word “photograph”. His teacher advises him to consider the context of the story and think of the Spanish equivalent, which is a cognate. Afterward, Juan successfully pronounces the word in English and continues reading the rest of the text. The teacher’s strategy of encouraging Juan to utilize his native language knowledge is primarily to:
27.- Maria, a sixth-grader, has been in the United States for five months but hardly ever speaks English (L2) in her bilingual class. She rarely speaks at all, except for brief sentences in her first language (L1) during one-on-one interactions with her teacher. Maria’s parents are not worried about her quiet behavior, stating that she is also very quiet at home. What is the best course of action for the teacher to take regarding Maria?
28.- A bilingual education teacher in a high school notices that many of her students speak in a dialect of their first language (L1) at home and in the community, but in a more formal register of their second language (L2) in academic settings. To help her students understand and appreciate this linguistic variation, she should:
29.- Mrs. Martinez is a bilingual education teacher who is working with English language learners (ELLs) in a middle school setting. She notices that some of her students switch back and forth between their first language (L1) and English (L2) during informal discussions. To best support her students’ language development, Mrs. Martinez should:
30.- In a 4th-grade bilingual classroom, Mrs. Gupta is introducing a lesson on the different pronunciations of the English letter combination “ough.” Which language component is she primarily focusing on in this lesson?
31.- Mr. Morales is teaching his 2nd-grade bilingual class about the concept of “plural.” He is introducing how adding “s” or “es” to the end of a word in English often signals more than one. What major language component is Mr. Morales focusing on?
32.- Mr. Johnson, a 2nd-grade bilingual teacher, uses positive reinforcement to encourage his students to use English. Each time a student uses a new English word correctly, Mr. Johnson rewards the student with a sticker. This teaching strategy aligns most closely with which theory/model of second-language development?
33.- In Mrs. Lee’s bilingual kindergarten class, she notices that some students can understand and follow spoken English instructions but struggle to express themselves fully in English. These students are likely at which stage of second language development?
34.- Ms. Lopez is teaching a bilingual 3rd grade class. She often incorporates hands-on activities that encourage students to communicate with one another in English. Ms. Lopez believes this method aids in the natural acquisition of language through context and social interaction. Her teaching approach aligns most closely with which theory/model of language acquisition?
35.- Mr. Singh, a bilingual education teacher, primarily focuses on teaching vocabulary and sentence structures by presenting real-life situations and engaging students in problem-solving tasks. He believes that understanding language involves more than knowing the words and grammar. It’s also about knowing how language is used in social contexts. Which linguistic concept is Mr. Singh emphasizing in his teaching approach?
36.- Mr. Gomez, a bilingual education teacher, uses cognates to help students bridge the gap between their first language (Spanish) and second language (English). For example, when teaching the English word “information,” he points out its Spanish cognate “información.” This method of teaching primarily aids students in:
37.- In a bilingual education setting, Ms. Perez notices a student is struggling to understand the concept of English plurals. She decides to compare it with the plural formation rules in the student’s first language, which is Spanish. Ms. Perez’s approach is an example of:
38.- Mr. Johnson, a third-grade teacher, has a student, Maria, who is at the beginning level of English-language proficiency. He frequently uses visuals, gestures, and slower speech to aid Maria’s understanding during class. Additionally, he provides her with targeted reading assignments that use simple English sentences. This approach is primarily demonstrating which of the following strategies?
39.- Ms. Franklin, an ESL teacher for fifth-grade students, regularly conducts targeted listening and speaking exercises. She divides her class into pairs and instructs them to carry out role-play scenarios using certain phrases and vocabulary. This form of activity is primarily designed to improve the students’:
40.- Mrs. Davis, an ESL teacher for a group of fourth-grade students, employs a technique where she introduces new English vocabulary words within meaningful contexts before asking her students to use these words in sentences and conversations. This teaching approach is mainly used to:
41.- What strategy would best assist English-language learners in a bilingual class to enhance their understanding of words with silent ‘e’ in English (L2)?
42.- Mrs. Lewis employs project-based assessments in her middle school mathematics class that includes English-language learners (ELLs). Project-based assessments are particularly beneficial for ELLs because they are used to
43.- Ms. Adams, a first-grade bilingual teacher, wishes to foster English-language learners’ (ELLs) phonological awareness abilities in their primary language (L1), which is an alphabetic language. Which of the following literacy activities would be most beneficial to achieve Ms. Adams’ objective?
44.- In an elementary science class, students are encouraged to maintain regular reflection journals based on their observations and experiments. A key advantage of reflection journal writing for English-language learners is that they:
45.- In an elementary science class, students are encouraged to maintain regular reflection journals based on their observations and experiments. A key advantage of reflection journal writing for English-language learners is that they:
46.- A fundamental distinction in the process of acquiring literacy skills in English and Arabic is that Arabic literacy involves:
47.- What is true according to Cummins’ linguistic interdependence hypothesis, which is represented in his “dual-iceberg” model, in relation to English-language learners’ (ELLs) first (L1) and second language (L2)?
48.- The Texas Education Agency has implemented proficiency standards for English-language learners to be incorporated across all subject areas. These standards are utilized by educators to shape their instruction. What is the name of these standards?
49.- In a first-grade bilingual class, Ms. Garcia notices that some of her English-language learners are struggling with reading fluency in their first language (L1). Which of the following instructional strategies would be most appropriate to support these students’ literacy development?
50.- Mr. Martinez, a second-grade teacher, has a group of students who are English-language learners (ELLs) at the early production stage of L1 literacy development. Which of the following instructional modifications would best support these students’ literacy development in their first language?
51.- In a middle school bilingual class, Mr. Lopez wants to continuously assess his students’ literacy development in their first language (L1) to inform his instruction. Which of the following assessment strategies would be most effective for this purpose?
52.- Mrs. Ramirez, a third-grade bilingual teacher, is planning to evaluate her students’ literacy skills in their first language (L1) throughout the year. Which of the following methods would best help Mrs. Ramirez assess her students’ L1 literacy development on a consistent basis?
53.- Mr. Hernandez, a Texas bilingual education teacher, is planning a reading/language arts lesson for his 4th-grade class. In the process, he needs to consider the state educator certification standards for both English and the students’ first language (L1). Which of the following strategies aligns with this requirement and promotes students’ literacy development in L1?
54.- A Texas 5th-grade bilingual teacher is designing a curriculum to teach reading/language arts in both English and the students’ first language (L1). Which of the following practices will best help the teacher promote bilingual students’ literacy development in accordance with the state educator certification standards?
55.- Ms. Garcia, a bilingual teacher in a Texas elementary school, is working on enhancing the literacy development of her students in their first language (L1) which is Spanish. In order to effectively accomplish this, Ms. Garcia needs to align her lesson plans with the statewide Spanish language arts and reading curriculum for grades EC–6 as specified in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). Which of the following strategies would best support this goal?
56.- Mr. Lopez, a middle school ESL teacher in Texas, is preparing his curriculum for a group of Spanish-speaking students. His goal is to promote these students’ literacy development in their first language (L1). Which of the following strategies aligns with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and best supports this goal?
57.- Mrs. Diaz is a bilingual teacher in Texas, aiming to help her English-language learners (ELLs) transfer their first language (L1) literacy skills to their second language (L2). Which of the following strategies should she use to effectively make use of their existing L1 literacy skills for L2 acquisition?
58.- Mr. Martinez, an ESL teacher, wants to leverage his students’ literacy skills in their first language (L1) to support their English (L2) reading comprehension development. What would be the most effective strategy to achieve this?
59.- Mrs. Johnson, an ESL teacher, is preparing reading lessons for her class of English-language learners (ELLs). She wants to incorporate the linguistic concept of comprehensible input in her instruction to promote L2 literacy development. Which of the following approaches should she employ?
60.- Mr. Santos, a bilingual education teacher, wants to promote biliteracy in his class of English-language learners (ELLs). He hopes to maintain his students’ literacy in their first language (L1) while also developing their literacy in English (L2). Which of the following strategies would be most effective in achieving this goal?
61.- Ms. Chen teaches mathematics at a dual-language immersion school where the lessons are taught in English. Raj, an English-language learner in her class, is at the beginning level of English proficiency. In order to maximize Raj’s understanding during the lessons, Ms. Chen should:
62.- The following instructional objective is listed on the board of a history class:
Content Objective: Students will analyze primary sources from the Civil War era and create a timeline of events.
Which of the following additional pieces of information would the teacher need to post next to the content objective to satisfy the requirements of sheltered instruction?
63.- English-language learners (ELLs) in a fifth-grade class are starting a multidisciplinary unit about the solar system. To assist the ELLs in tracking their own learning throughout the unit, the most effective strategy for the teacher would be to:
64.- Ms. Rodriguez, a bilingual teacher, assists English-language learners (ELLs) in generating a list of questions to steer and refine their reading comprehension. She then motivates them to develop the habit of referring to the questions during their reading process. The following are some examples of the questions.
• What is the main idea of this passage?
• Who are the main characters?
• What are the key points in the text?
Ms. Rodriguez’s method is mainly benefiting the ELLs by enhancing their ability to:
65.- Which of the following science activities would be most suitable for English-language learners who are reading and speaking at the intermediate language proficiency level in English?
66.- English-language learners (ELLs) are practicing distance measurements in mathematics lessons in their primary language and learning names of places in the city in English language arts lessons. Which of the following activities would best integrate the ELLs’ English language-arts development with their content-area development?
67.- A history class, including English-language learners (ELLs) at varying levels of English-language proficiency, is studying the Civil War in the United States. The lesson plan indicates that students will read the Civil War sections in their history textbooks and independently complete a timeline detailing the key events of the war. Which of the following instructional activities is most beneficial in helping ELLs build background knowledge prior to the assignment?
68.- What is the most effective way for students to reinforce their understanding of a newly learned vocabulary word?
69.- English-language learners (ELLs) are going to collaborate in teams to prepare a science project in English. Before the ELLs convene for the first team meeting, the teacher encourages them to write down everything they understand about the project’s subject in English. They then join their team with their notes as a reference. The note-writing activity primarily assists the ELLs in their project completion because it
70.- Mrs. Sanchez is a bilingual teacher who aims to assess her students’ cognitive-academic language proficiency and content-area skills in both their first language (L1) and second language (L2). She decides to use a formative assessment strategy. Which of the following would be the most appropriate method to accomplish this?
71.- In a bilingual classroom, Mr. Gonzales wants to ensure that the content-area instruction he provides is linguistically accommodated to his students’ levels of English language proficiency. Which of the following strategies would be most effective in achieving this goal?
72.- Mrs. Anderson is planning a unit on environmental science in her bilingual classroom. Her aim is to create authentic and purposeful learning activities that promote students’ cognitive-academic language proficiency and content-area concepts in both their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Which of the following activities would best support this goal?
73.- Mr. Garcia teaches a bilingual class and wants to ensure his students are developing the foundation of English-language vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and mechanics necessary to understand content-based instruction. Which of the following activities is the most effective in promoting this while aligning with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)?
74.- Mrs. Patel, a bilingual education teacher, wants to incorporate language arts skills into her social studies class. Which of the following strategies would best integrate language arts skills in both L1 and L2 and promote students’ cognitive and linguistic development?
75.- Mr. Kim teaches mathematics in a bilingual classroom and wants to integrate language arts skills into his lessons to promote his students’ cognitive and linguistic development. Which of the following methods would be most effective?
76.- Mr. Rodriguez, an ESL teacher, wants to make his history class content more comprehensible for his English language learners. Which of the following approaches is likely to be the most effective in helping his students develop cognitive academic language and content-area knowledge in English?
77.- Mrs. Johnson wants to enhance her English language learners’ comprehension of new math concepts. She is aware of the importance of promoting students’ development of learning strategies in English. Which of the following strategies would be most beneficial for her students?
78.- Mr. Anderson is teaching a science class with English language learners of various language proficiency levels. Which of the following approaches would be the most effective way for Mr. Anderson to differentiate his instruction based on his students’ language proficiency levels in English?
79.- In Ms. Gomez’s class of English language learners, she needs to provide support for students at various English proficiency levels. Which strategy would be most effective in meeting her students’ diverse needs?
80.- In Ms. Fernandez’s bilingual class, she wants to create a learning experience that enhances her students’ cognitive-academic language proficiency and understanding of history. Which of the following methods would best achieve her goal in line with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)?
81.- Mrs. Torres is a bilingual teacher who wants to help her students improve their English vocabulary, grammar, and syntax skills while also teaching math. Which of the following methods aligns with this goal according to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)?